Eileen Creel (at time of study, a Humboldt State University Wildlife graduate student) set up remote cameras to determine the effectiveness of a simple electric fence setup in deterring black bears from a baited site. These experimental sites were located on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation in California and were part of a graduate project. The resulting thesis and project entitled EFFECTIVENESS OF DETERRENTS ON BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS) TO ANTHROPOGENIC ATTRACTANTS IN URBAN-WILDLAND INTERFACES can be read here: http://humboldt-dspace.calstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2148/296/Final%20Thesis.pdf?sequence=1Description of the fence site from paper: The electric-fence station used a weatherproof, portable electric fence energizer with a maximum output of 9,500 V (Model MAG. 12 U.O. Parmak, Parker McCrory Manufacturing Company, Kansas City, Missouri). The minimum distance from the fence to the bait was the maximum shoulder length (91 cm) of male black bears captured on the Reservation. This reduced the chance of bears reaching through the fence and accessing the bait. The electric fence surrounded a 4 m2 area. The area surrounding the perimeter of the fence was hand-raked and any vegetation or debris that could interfere with the electrical charge was removed. To penetrate bear hair, electric fences were set at a minimum guard voltage of 5000 V. The electric fence was tested each day with a voltage tester (Model RSVT8, Zareba Systems, Ellendale, Minnesota) to ensure the fence produced a guard voltage between 5000 to 8000 V. The electric fence was constructed using four strands of wire attached to four 1.2 m plastic poles (Figure 2, page 13). To improve grounding around the electric fence, wire mesh with 2.5 cm mesh spacing (Style #412-1-20, Red Brand, Peoria, Illinois) and a 0.91 m steel ground rod were placed along the perimeter. The electric fence had two strands of white 3.8 cm poly tape with 15 stainless steel strands (G624544, Gallagher, North Kansas City, Missouri) and two strands of aluminum wire (XL17250, Gallagher, North Kansas City, Missouri). The strands were attached to four plastic posts and all strands of wire were attached and connected to the electric fence energizer (Model MAG. 12 U.O. Parmak, Parker McCrory Manufacturing Company, Kansas City, Missouri). The electric fence energizer was powered by a deep cycle Absorptive Glass Mat 12 volt battery (MU-1 SLD M, MK Batteries, China), and both were placed in a plastic container outside of the fence.Video provided by Eileen Verbeck (Creel).
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